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Law enforcement in Canada are public-sector police forces that are associated with and commissioned to the three levels of government: municipal (both lower and upper-tier), provincial, and federal. Most urban areas have been given the authority by the provinces to maintain their own police force. All but two of Canada's provinces in turn, contract out their provincial law-enforcement responsibilities to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (popularly known in English-speaking areas as the Mounties), the national police force, which is commissioned to the federal level of government. In addition, many First Nations Reserves have their own police forces established through agreements between the governing native band, province and the federal government with 50,000 members

Police services
The provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador maintain their own provincial police forces—the Ontario Provincial Police, Sûreté du Québec, and Royal Newfoundland Constabulary respectively. Smaller municipalities often contract police service from the provincial policing authority, while larger ones maintain their own forces. Newfoundland's provincial police force is only responsible for the province's larger urban areas (St. John's, Corner Brook and Labrador West); the province has contracted the RCMP/GRC to patrol the rest of the province. The other seven provinces and the three territories contract police services to the RCMP/GRC. It also serves as the local police in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force, mostly in rural areas. Thus, the RCMP/GRC is the only police force of any sort in some areas of the country.

There are also a few private police forces with some of the powers usually reserved for governmental forces (as it relates to company property). The Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway and Via Rail each have their own police force (CN Police, Canadian Pacific Police Service, and Via Rail Police respectively). Any railway in Canada, under Federal jurisdiction, can request that a Superior Court judge appoint police officers under the Railway Safety Act. The duties of private railway police are to prevent crimes against the company and protection of goods, materials, and public rail transit being moved on their rail systems. They work to protect the public, rail personnel, and property owned or administered by the railways. The regular public police maintain authority and jurisdiction for all criminal offences, regardless of whether the offence occurs on public or private property. Some hospitals, universities, transit commissions, power authorities and other agencies employ special constables. The local police chief has statutory and Common Law authority and responsibility for the jurisdiction policed. The duties of private special constables are determined by their employers and have authorities limited by statutes under which they operate. All persons and companies have access to public police.

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